Detailed explanation of CNC circular interpolation commands G02 and G03

Instruction format: G02/G03 X(U)___Z(W)___I___K___F___;

G02/G03 X(U)___Z(W)___R___F___;

1. Judgment of arc reversal

Circular interpolation instructions are divided into a clockwise circular interpolation command G02 and a counterclockwise circular interpolation command G03. The forward and reverse of circular interpolation can be judged according to the direction given in Fig. 2-1: When viewed along the negative direction (-Y) of the vertical axis of the arc (such as the XZ plane), the clockwise direction is G02. Clockwise direction is G03.

The CNC lathe is a two-coordinate machine with only the X-axis and the Z-axis, and the Y-axis is also added to the right-hand rule. The observer makes the positive direction of the Y-axis point toward himself (ie, looking in the negative direction of the Y-axis), and standing in such a position can correctly judge the arc of the XZ plane along the anti-clockwise direction.


Figure 2-1 Judgment of Circular Arc Inverse

2. Description:

1 When programming in absolute value, the arc end point coordinate is the coordinate value of the arc end point in the workpiece coordinate system, which is represented by X and Z. When programming with incremental values, the arc end point coordinate is the incremental value of the arc end point relative to the arc start point, which is represented by U and W.

2 Center coordinates I and K are the vector of the vector from the starting point of the arc to the center of the arc in the direction of the X and Z axes (the vector direction points to the center of the circle). The system I, K is an incremental value with a "+" sign, and the "-" sign is taken when the direction of the division vector and the direction of the coordinate axis are not the same.

3 When only the center of the circle is specified by the radius, because there is a possibility of two arcs from the starting point of the arc to the ending point in the case of the same radius, when the center angle is determined to be less than or equal to 180°, use " +R" indicates. If the arc center angle is >180°, use “-R”.

4 When specifying the center of the circle with a radius, the entire circle cannot be described.

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